AFFORDABLE HOUSING GLOSSARY

We have a created a Glossary of terms that are frequently used in affordable housing and in economic disparities.  Please select a letter of the alphabet to search for the word and definition.  If you have any questions, please contact us here.

A

ADUs - Accessory Dwelling Units


Having a second small dwelling right on the same grounds (or attached to) a regular single-family house, such as an apartment over the garage, a tiny house (on a foundation) in the backyard or a basement apartment.




AMI - Area Median Income


The household income for the median - or middle - household in a region. Briefly, if you were to line up each household in the area from the poorest to the wealthiest, the household in the middle would be the median household. HUD establishes income limits for assisted housing. The limits are available by family size and are defined as:

  • Extremely Low Income (30% of AMI) Also see Extremely low income below
  • Very Low Income (50% of AMI)
  • Low Income (80% of AMI)
  • Moderate Income (80% to 120% of AMI)

Income limits are set using data from the Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (1- year estimates where available, or 5-year estimates if 1-year estimates are not available). These data are published annually, and are available at geographies as small as zip codes and Census Tracts on the HUD website.




Assisted Multi-Family at Transit Station Areas Policy (City Policy)


Strongly encourages the City to pursue opportunities to develop multifamily renatal housing assisted by local, state, or federal funds within a 1/4 mile radius of adopted transit stations (rapid transit stations). However, this policy exempted development along the Blue LIne Extension since 2013. The City will evealuate this toold and is full impact on future opportunities.





B


C

CDBG - Community Development Block Grants


Entitlement Funding to help entitled metropolitan cities and urban counties, including Mecklenburg, meet their housing and community development needs. The program provides annual grants on a formula basis to entitled communities to carry out a wide range of community development activities directed toward neighborhood revitalization, economic development, and improved community facilities and services. Entitlement communities develop their own programs and funding priorities and consult with local residents before making final decisions. All CDBG activities must meet at least one of the following national objectives: benefit low- and moderate-income persons; aid in the prevention or elimination of slums and blight; or meet certain urgent community development needs. Some of the activities that can be carried out with community development block grant funds include the acquisition of real property; rehabilitation of residential and nonresidential properties; provision of public facilities and improvements, such as water and sewer, streets, and neighborhood centers; public services; clearance; homeownership assistance; and assistance to for-profit businesses for economic development activities.




CHA - Charlotte Housing Authority


The Charlotte Housing Authority is a Section 8 and Public Housing public housing agency. It is a non-profit real estate holding company with the stated purpose of providing decent, safe, housing that is affordable to low and moderate-income families while supporting their efforts to achieve self-sufficiency. Housing types are:

  • Housing Choice Voucher Program
  • Income Based (Low Income) Housing
  • Mixed-Income Housing
  • Workforce and Market Housing

http://cha-nc.org/




CHASF - Charlotte Housing Authority Scholarship Fund


provides scholarships specifically for students from Charlotte public housing communities to Ppursue postsecondary education.

http://cha-scholarshipfund.org/




Community Land Trust


A nonprofit corporation that develops and stewards affordable housing, community gardens, civic buildings, commercial spaces and other community assets on behalf of a community.




Cost-burdened


Paying more than 30 percent of household income toward housing costs. Severely cost burdened: paying more than 50% of household income toward housing costs.




Charlotte-Mecklenburg Housing Partnership


The Housing Partnership: A broad-based, private, non-profit housing development and financial corporation organized to expand affordable and well-maintained housing within stable neighborhoods for low and moderate income families in the City of Charlotte and Mecklenburg Couonty. https://www.cmhp.org/





D

Density Bonus


The housing density bonus is intended to encourage private developers to
include affordable units in their projects in exchange for higher density than the existing zoning allows. In exchange for increased density, developers reserve a share of their units for low-income households, including a portion for households at or below 60 percent of area median income in multifamily districts, and keep these units affordable for 15 years. To date, though, this incentive has not produced any affordable housing units, according to the Housing Charlotte Framework, page 20.
https://charlotte.uli.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/15/2018/08/Housing-Charlotte-Framework.pdf





E

Extremely Low Income


Originally defined as 30 % of area median income (AMI), the FY 2014 Consolidated Appropriations Act changed the definition of extremely low-income to be the greater of 30/50ths (60 percent) of the Section 8 very low-income limit or the poverty guideline as established by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), provided that this amount is not greater than the Section 8 50% very low-income limit. Consequently, the extremely low income limits may equal the very low (50%) income limits. https://www.housingonline.com/2014/07/09/hud-modifies-extremely-low-income-definition/

Fair Housing Act: The Civil Rights Act of 1968 defines housing discrimination as the “refusal to sell or rent a dwelling to any person because of his race, color, religion, or national origin”. Title VIII of this Act is commonly referred to as the Fair Housing Act of 1968. It introduced meaningful federal enforcement mechanisms.

The Fair Housing Amendments Act (FHAA) was signed into law on September 13, 1988. The Act amends Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968 by extending protection to persons with a disability and families with children.




ESG - Emergency Solutions Grant


Program provides grants by formula to states, metropolitan cities, urban counties, and U.S. territories for eligible activities, which generally include essential services related to emergency shelter and street outreach; rehabilitation and conversion of buildings to be used as emergency shelters; operation of emergency shelters; short-term and medium-term rental assistance for individuals and families who are homeless or at risk of homelessness; housing relocation and stabilization services for individuals and families who are homeless or at risk of homelessness; and Homeless Management Information System (HMIS) participation costs.




Evergreen


In 2017, the Evergreen Team – a volunteer committee of public and private leaders –
met monthly to discuss Charlotte’s affordable housing crisis and identify solutions for the next ten years. The Evergreen Team proposed eight ideas that offer solutions in the coming decade. Each idea is supported by an execution strategy that includes key actions essential to implementation and long-term housing affordability. Housing Charlotte addresses many of the ideas proposed by the Evergreen Team.
https://charlotte.uli.org/news/evergreen-team-task-force-releases-affordable-housing-report/





F

Fair Housing Act


The Civil Rights Act of 1968 defines housing discrimination as the “refusal to
sell or rent a dwelling to any person because of his race, color, religion, or national origin”. Title VIII of this Act is commonly referred to as the Fair Housing Act of 1968. It introduced meaningful federal enforcement mechanisms. The Fair Housing Amendments Act (FHAA) was signed into law on September 13, 1988. The Act amends Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968 by extending protection to persons with disability and families with children.





G


H

Housing Insecurity


<h6 class="font_6">Households that are both low- income and paying more than 50 percent of their monthly income on housing costs.</h6>




HNS - Department of Housing and Neighborhood Services


Department of Housing and Neighborhood Services invests federal and local resources
to develop and preserve affordable housing, with the Engineering & Property Management
Department developed a formal process for when to use city-owned property for affordable
housing development. Increased access to city-owned assets can help lower the overall cost of affordable housing development.
http://charlottenc.gov/HNS/Housing/Pages/default.aspx




HOME Investment Partnerships


Participating jurisdictions may use HOME funds for a variety of housing activities, depending on local housing needs. Eligible uses of funds include tenant-based rental assistance; housing rehabilitation; assistance to homebuyers; and new construction of housing. HOME funding may also be used for real property acquisition, site improvements, demolition, relocation, for both new construction and rehabilitation projects the costs to meet property standards, including accessibility requirements, and other necessary and reasonable activities related to the development of non-luxury housing. Funds may not be used
for public housing development, public housing operating costs, or for Section 8 tenant-based assistance, nor may they be used to provide non-federal matching contributions for other federal programs, for operating subsidies for rental housing, or for activities under the Low-Income Housing Preservation Act. All housing funded under the HOME program must serve low- and very low-income families.




HOPWA - Housing Opportunities for Persons with AIDS


To provide housing assistance and related supportive services to meet the housing needs of low-income persons and their families living with HIV/AIDS. These resources help clients maintain housing stability, avoid homelessness, and improve access to HIV/AIDS treatment and related care. To be eligible for HOPWA assistance, an individual must have an HIV or AIDS diagnosis and have a total household income of less than 80 percent of the area median income.




HouseCharlotte





HAB - Housing Advisory Board of Charlotte-Mecklenburg County


The Housing Advisory Board educates, advocates, engages, and partners with community stakeholders to prevent and end homelessness and ensure a sufficient supply of affordable housing throughout charlotte-Mecklenburg. HAB Sub Committees are:
- Affordable Housing Committee Educating and advocating for increased access and availability of affordable housing in Charlotte-Mecklenburg.
- Research & Evaluation Committee Promoting, supporting and disseminating research and data on homelessness, housing instability and affordable housing to the board and community stakeholders.
- Continuum of Care (CoC) Committee Overseeing the federally mandated activities for the
Charlotte-Mecklenburg Continuum of Care.
The following agencies can provide housing education, counseling, and foreclosure prevention services in Mecklenburg County:
● Community Link, 800-977-19694 ● The Housing Partnership, (704) 342-0933
● NC Foreclosure Prevention Fund, (888) 623-8631




HAP - Housing Assistance Payment


Used to provide Section 8 tenant-based assistance under the housing choice voucher program (voucher program) of the U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). See HBVP and PVB.




Housing Charlotte Framework


Using housing investments to increase access to opportunity is the foundation of the Housing Charlotte Framework. The Leading On Opportunity Report and
other affordable housing development partners developed the Housing Charlotte Framework to serve as a guide to address key City policy, investment, and production goals over the next several years.

https://charlotte.uli.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/15/2018/08/Housing-Charlotte-Framework.pdf




HVC - Housing Choice Voucher Program


Housing Choice Voucher Program provides "tenant-based" rental assistance. Previously
known as Section 8, in the Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Program enrollees receive a voucher that allows a portion of the rent to be paid directly to the property manager or property owner by Charlotte Housing Authority (CHA). See HVC in HUD below.




HTF - Housing Trust Fund


Currently provides $15 million in gap financing (via low-interest loans and grants) for acquisition, new construction, and rehabilitation of multifamily units every
two years. The existing local Housing Trust Fund, yields approximately 1,100 units per year (300 units from 9 percent and 800 units from 4 percent transactions). However, the Charlotte
community has strongly and consistently suggested that the Housing Trust Fund be ncreased. To that end, the City Manager’s recommended budget for fiscal year 2019 includes a $50 million Housing Trust Fund allocation.
http://charlottenc.gov/HNS/Housing/Landlords/Pages/HTF.aspx




HCVP - Housing Choice Voucher Program


Section 8 provides "tenant-based" rental assistance, so a tenant can move from one unit of at least minimum housingquality to another. The housing choice voucher program is the federal government's major program for assisting very low-income families, the elderly, and the disabled to afford decent, safe, and sanitary housing in the private market. Since housing assistance is provided on behalf of the family or individual, participants are able to find their own housing, including single-family homes, townhouses and apartments. Housing choice vouchers are administered locally by public housing agencies(PHAs), Locally the Charlotte Housing Authority (CHA). The PHAs receive federal funds from HUD to administer the
voucher program. A family that is issued a housing voucher is responsible for finding a suitable housing unit of the family's choice where the owner agrees to rent under the program. This unit may include the family's present residence. Rental units must meet minimum standards of health and safety, as determined by the PHA. A housing subsidy is paid to the landlord directly by the PHA on behalf of the participating family. The family then pays the difference between the actual rent charged by the landlord and the amount subsidized by the program. Under certain circumstances, if authorized by the PHA, a
family may use its voucher to purchase a modest home.
See: https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/public_indian_housing/programs/hcv/about/fact_sheet





I


J


K


L

Low Income


80% of area median income. See AMI




Leading on Opportunity Council/Leading on Opportunity Taskforce


In 2013, a Harvard University/UC Berkeley study reported that Charlotte ranked 50th in economic mobility among large U.S. cities. Local leaders responded by forming the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Opportunity Task Force, a group with members representing the area’s diverse neighborhoods and communities. Over an 18-month period in 2015 and 2016, the Opportunity Task Force set out to draft a comprehensive framework to guide policymakers, community leaders, and philanthropic partners toward addressing the negative effects of intergenerational poverty on Charlotte-Mecklenburg’s children and youth. The Leading on Opportunity Task Force Report presents analysis and recommendations according to the three determinants that the task force identified as having the greatest influence on the opportunity trajectory of an individual: 1) early care and education; 2) college and career readiness; 3) child and family stability.
https://leadingonopportunity.org/




LISC - Local Initiative Support Corporation


“We receive our funding from banks, corporations, foundations and government agencies. We, in turn, use that funding to provide financing (loans, grants and equity) and technical and management assistance to local partners and developers.”
http://www.lisc.org/ or http://www.lisc.org/our-model/how-lisc-works/




Locational Policy / Housing Locational Policy


Originally designed to help ensure that subsidized multifamily projects are not concentrated within Charlotte. The City of Charlotte is in the process of updating its Housing Locational Policy. Policy under review:
http://charlottenc.gov/HNS/Housing/Strategy/Documents/2011%20Housing%20Locational%20Policy.pdf




LIHTC - Low-Income Housing Tax Credit


The LIHTC was created as a part of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 and was designed to incent developers and investors to create and operate affordable housing. Under the program a developer receives federal income tax credits over a 10-year period in exchange for (i) acquiring, rehabbing or newly constructing rental housing for low-income households, and then (ii) operating the project under LIHTC guidelines for a certain compliance period. Unlike a tax deduction, which only reduces taxable income, the LIHTC credits offset dollar-for-dollar a party’s tax liability. The applicable percentage depends on the type of project and whether it is receiving other federal subsidies. 9% credit percentage is available for new construction or rehabilitation projects, so long as it isn’t also funded with tax-exempt, private activity bonds. 4% credit percentage is available for the acquisition of an existing project, and for those new construction and rehabilitation projects that are funded in part with tax-exempt bonds. If no bonds are involved, such new construction and rehabilitation projects would otherwise be eligible for the 9% credit percentage.
https://www.propertymetrics.com/blog/2017/06/13/a-complete-guide-to-the-low-income-housing-tax-credit-program/





M

Mixed Income Housing Development


A planned, single development that has a percentage of the dwelling units targeted to income levels at or below 80% Aeram Median Income (AMI) and developed according to an approved preliminary site plan.




Moderate Income


80 to 120% of Area Median Income (AMI)




MTW - Moving to Work


A demonstration program for public housing authorities(PHAs) that provides them the opportunity to design and test innovative, locally-designed strategies that: ●Reduce cost and achieve greater costs effectiveness in Federal expenditures ●Give incentives to families with children where the head of household is working, is seekingwork, or is preparing for work by participating in job training, educational programs, or programs thatassist people to obtain employment and become economically self-sufficient ●Increase housing choices for low-income families MTW gives PHAs exemptions from many existing public housing and voucher rules and more flexibilitywith how they use their Federal funds. CHA is 1 of 39 agencies participating in the federaldemonstration program.The Moving Forward Program is CHA’s local Moving to Work (MTW)program. http://cha-nc.org/about/moving-forward




Moving Forward Program


The Moving Forward Program is CHA's local Moving to Work (MTW) program. See MTW.





N

NACA - The Neighborhood Assistance Corporation of America


NACA is a non-profit, community advocacy and homeownership organization. NACA's primary goal is to build strong, healthy neighborhoods in urban and rural areas nationwide through affordable homeownership. NACA has conclusively shown that when working people get the benefit of a prime rate loan, they can resolve their financial problems, make their mortgage papyments and become prime borrowers. https://www.naca.com/




NOAH - naturally occurring affordable housing


A unit that is not subsidized or income-restricted. Charlotte offers affordable rental options in three main ways: 1) development-based (or project based) assistance 2) rental assistance through vouchers 3) naturally occurring affordable housing. Of these three types, NOAH units overwhelmingly make up the largest portion of the city’s affordable rental supply for low-income households. About eleven percent (approximately 14,000 units) of rental housing in Charlotte receives either development-based or tenant-based rental assistance.
For details of Charlotte NOAH, see Appendix 1, p.39, 40 and Appendix 2, p. 47 of:
https://charlotte.uli.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/15/2018/08/Housing-Charlotte-Framework.pdf




NOFA - Notice of Funding Availability


Notice of Funding Availability is a notice published each year in Grants.gov for HUD’s Discretionary Funding Programs. This notice describes the type of funding available on a competitive basis and provides a contact where an application may be submitted, typically up to 60 to 90 daysfrom the date of NOFA publication. Selection will then be made based upon specific factors andcriteria identified within the NOFA. https://nchousing.org/cdbg-neighborhood-revitalization-nofa-goes-out/




NRSA - Neighborhood Revitalization Strategy Area


As an incentive for CDBG Entitlement communities to develop and use NRSAs, the HUD provides greater flexibility in the use of CDBG resources, including Section 108 Loan Guarantee program funds. Communities with approved NRSAs are offered enhanced flexibility in undertaking economic development, housing, and public service activities with their CDBG funds. This flexibility is designed to promote innovative programs in economically disadvantaged areas of the community. A Notice of Funding Availability for NRSA’s in North Carolina was issued April 13, 2018. See NOFA.





O

Opportunity Zones


An Opportunity Zone is an economically-distressed community where new
investments, under certain conditions, may be eligible for preferential tax treatment. Localities qualify as Opportunity Zones if they have been nominated for that designation by the state and that nomination has been certified by the Secretary of the U.S. Treasury via his delegation authority to the Internal Revenue Service. Opportunity Zones are designed to spur economic development by providing tax benefits to investors. Opportunity Zones were added to the tax code by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act on December 22, 2017





P

PBV - Project-Based Vouchers


PBVs are a component of a public housing agency’s (PHA’s) Housing Choice Voucher program. (See HCVP above) PHAs are not allocated additional funding for PBV units; the PHA uses its tenant-based voucher funding to allocate project-based units to a project. Projects are typically selected for PBVs through a competitive process managed by the
PHA; although in certain cases projects may be selected non-competitively.





Q


R

RAD - Rental Assistance Demonstration


Charlotte Housing Authority (CHA) is in the process of converting all of its public housing units to Project Based Voucher units under the RAD program. See HBVP and PVB in HUD below. Also http://cha-nc.org/about/moving-forward





S

Section 108


Funding for mixed-income and mixed-use development. Section 108 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 provides for a loan guarantee component of the Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) Program. Section 108 provides communities with a source of financing for economic development, housing rehabilitation, public facilities, and other physical development projects, including improvements to increase their resilience against natural disasters. The funds can be used by a designated public entity to undertake eligible projects, or, alternatively, can be loaned to a third party developer to undertake the projects. This flexibility makes it one of the most potent and important public investment tools that HUD offers to local governments.




Section 8


Section 8 of the Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. § 1437f): As repeatedly amended,
Section 8 authorizes the payment of rental housing assistance to private landlords on behalf of low-income households. The largest part of the section is the Housing Choice Voucher program which pays a large portion of the rents and utilities of low-income households.
See HCV.





T

Tax Abatement/Tax Incentives


Reduction of or exemption from taxes granted by a government for a specified period, usually to encourage certain activities such as investment in capital equipment. A tax incentive is a form of tax abatement. Two primary types of tax incentives are tax credits and tax grants.




Tax Credits


An amount allowed to be deducted from reported gross income, used to encourage spending money on items or programs the government believe are worthy. LIHTC tax credits do not follow this usual pattern. See LIHTC




Tax Credit Funding


See LIHTC




Tax Grants


A grant is a sum of money given to a person or institution for a specific purpose. Grants do not require repayment to the issuing authority. Most tax grants are really a kind of exemption from tax given by taxing authorities. States, counties and municipalities can issue tax grants, usually on property or capital purchases. Many taxing authorities, for example, issue tax grants to nonprofits, allowing them to forgo paying peoperty tax.




Terwilliger


In response to a 2016 HUD report that Charlotte had a deficit of approximately
34,000 affordable housing units based on demand city staff contacted the Urban Land Institute’s Terwilliger Center for Housing (Center) to provide technical assistance in developing a strategy to address the deficit. The Increasing Workforce and Affordable Housing in Charlotte report contains the Center’s recommendations.
https://charlotte.uli.org/news/uli-terwilliger-center-recommendations-city-charlotte/




TCAP - Tax Credit Assistance Program


Part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, a grant program to provide funds for capital investments in stalled Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) projects. As planned, HUD would expend 100 percent of its TCAP grant within three years of the enactment of the Recovery Act (i.e., by February 16, 2012).




TIG (Tax Increment Grant)


A Tax Increment Grant (TIG) is a tool used by City/County to partner with private developers to enable projects that promote economic growth and land use planning goals. The simple mechanics result in an amount of investment by City/County into the project. The private developers gain a rebate in their annual property taxes until the amount of agreed upon investment is reached. This diverts the new developments annual public tax revenue from the general fund until the TIG amount is reached.

Simple Example:

Developer A want to build a new office building that will bring new jobs to the city. The developer partners with the Economic Development teams of both the City/County to agree upon an amount that will make the project an attractive investment for investors. The developer communicates that the project will not be financially viable (pencil out) absent the public funding.

-Proposed Project - $500 million in investment creating XX jobs.

-Developer Requested Public Funding - $25 million

-Property Taxes generated by $500 million investment = $5 million / year

Developer would receive a property tax refund for 5 years ($25 / $5) totaling $25 million

This tool has been used historically by City/County to attract new businesses and to assist in the development of large projects that will lead to economic development.

Per the City’s Economic Development Page:

TIGs are provided on a reimbursement basis only and the project must demonstrate its benefit to the general public. Examples of reimbursable improvements through a TIG include but are not limited to, new public infrastructure such as roads, streetscapes, and parking decks. A TIG may also be employed to assist in gap funding for developments shown to achieve the City’s goals and objectives (e.g. affordable and workforce housing, job creation, etc.) but would not be financially feasible without assistance from the City.





U

UDO - Unified Development Ordinance


UDO is a regulatory tool meant to guide future development so that it results in the types of community and places defined by Charlotte’s Place Type policies. https://charlotteudo.org/about-2/place-types/. The UDO will also be instrumental in implementing other City policies such as the Transportation Action Plan, the Urban Street Design Guidelines, and the Urban Forestry Master Plan. It will combine multiple development ordinances, including the Zoning Ordinance, into one set of regulations.The UDO is currently being updated by The Charlotte-Mecklenburg Planning Department.
https://charlotteudo.org/about-2/





V

Voluntary Mixed Income Housing Development Program


Approved by City Council in 2013 as an incentive to private sector housing developers to build affordable housing units.This program seeks to encourage housing diversity in mixed-income housing developments in targeted locations through a voluntary, incentive-based density bonus within the R-3, R-4, R-5, and R-6 single family zoning districts and the R-8MF and R-12MF multi-family zoning districts.
https://www.cmhp.org/voluntary-mixed-income-housing-development-program/




Very Low Income


50% of area median income (AMI)





W


X


Y


Z

Zoning Density Bonus


A density bonus is an incentive-based tool that permits a developer to increase
the maximum allowable development on a site in exchange for either funds or in-kind support for specified public policy goals. See Density Bonus.





COMMUNITY QUESTION & ANSWERS

Below are many of the frequently asked questions about Equitable Communities CLT and the affordable housing crisis in Charlotte, North Carolina. Simply click any category and view common questions and their answers. If you have any further questions, don't hesitate to reach out to us here. 

A

ADUs - Accessory Dwelling Units


Having a second small dwelling right on the same grounds (or attached to) a regular single-family house, such as an apartment over the garage, a tiny house (on a foundation) in the backyard or a basement apartment.




AMI - Area Median Income


The household income for the median - or middle - household in a region. Briefly, if you were to line up each household in the area from the poorest to the wealthiest, the household in the middle would be the median household. HUD establishes income limits for assisted housing. The limits are available by family size and are defined as:

  • Extremely Low Income (30% of AMI) Also see Extremely low income below
  • Very Low Income (50% of AMI)
  • Low Income (80% of AMI)
  • Moderate Income (80% to 120% of AMI)

Income limits are set using data from the Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (1- year estimates where available, or 5-year estimates if 1-year estimates are not available). These data are published annually, and are available at geographies as small as zip codes and Census Tracts on the HUD website.




Assisted Multi-Family at Transit Station Areas Policy (City Policy)


Strongly encourages the City to pursue opportunities to develop multifamily renatal housing assisted by local, state, or federal funds within a 1/4 mile radius of adopted transit stations (rapid transit stations). However, this policy exempted development along the Blue LIne Extension since 2013. The City will evealuate this toold and is full impact on future opportunities.





B


C

CDBG - Community Development Block Grants


Entitlement Funding to help entitled metropolitan cities and urban counties, including Mecklenburg, meet their housing and community development needs. The program provides annual grants on a formula basis to entitled communities to carry out a wide range of community development activities directed toward neighborhood revitalization, economic development, and improved community facilities and services. Entitlement communities develop their own programs and funding priorities and consult with local residents before making final decisions. All CDBG activities must meet at least one of the following national objectives: benefit low- and moderate-income persons; aid in the prevention or elimination of slums and blight; or meet certain urgent community development needs. Some of the activities that can be carried out with community development block grant funds include the acquisition of real property; rehabilitation of residential and nonresidential properties; provision of public facilities and improvements, such as water and sewer, streets, and neighborhood centers; public services; clearance; homeownership assistance; and assistance to for-profit businesses for economic development activities.




CHA - Charlotte Housing Authority


The Charlotte Housing Authority is a Section 8 and Public Housing public housing agency. It is a non-profit real estate holding company with the stated purpose of providing decent, safe, housing that is affordable to low and moderate-income families while supporting their efforts to achieve self-sufficiency. Housing types are:

  • Housing Choice Voucher Program
  • Income Based (Low Income) Housing
  • Mixed-Income Housing
  • Workforce and Market Housing

http://cha-nc.org/




CHASF - Charlotte Housing Authority Scholarship Fund


provides scholarships specifically for students from Charlotte public housing communities to Ppursue postsecondary education.

http://cha-scholarshipfund.org/




Community Land Trust


A nonprofit corporation that develops and stewards affordable housing, community gardens, civic buildings, commercial spaces and other community assets on behalf of a community.




Cost-burdened


Paying more than 30 percent of household income toward housing costs. Severely cost burdened: paying more than 50% of household income toward housing costs.




Charlotte-Mecklenburg Housing Partnership


The Housing Partnership: A broad-based, private, non-profit housing development and financial corporation organized to expand affordable and well-maintained housing within stable neighborhoods for low and moderate income families in the City of Charlotte and Mecklenburg Couonty. https://www.cmhp.org/





D

Density Bonus


The housing density bonus is intended to encourage private developers to
include affordable units in their projects in exchange for higher density than the existing zoning allows. In exchange for increased density, developers reserve a share of their units for low-income households, including a portion for households at or below 60 percent of area median income in multifamily districts, and keep these units affordable for 15 years. To date, though, this incentive has not produced any affordable housing units, according to the Housing Charlotte Framework, page 20.
https://charlotte.uli.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/15/2018/08/Housing-Charlotte-Framework.pdf





E

Extremely Low Income


Originally defined as 30 % of area median income (AMI), the FY 2014 Consolidated Appropriations Act changed the definition of extremely low-income to be the greater of 30/50ths (60 percent) of the Section 8 very low-income limit or the poverty guideline as established by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), provided that this amount is not greater than the Section 8 50% very low-income limit. Consequently, the extremely low income limits may equal the very low (50%) income limits. https://www.housingonline.com/2014/07/09/hud-modifies-extremely-low-income-definition/

Fair Housing Act: The Civil Rights Act of 1968 defines housing discrimination as the “refusal to sell or rent a dwelling to any person because of his race, color, religion, or national origin”. Title VIII of this Act is commonly referred to as the Fair Housing Act of 1968. It introduced meaningful federal enforcement mechanisms.

The Fair Housing Amendments Act (FHAA) was signed into law on September 13, 1988. The Act amends Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968 by extending protection to persons with a disability and families with children.




ESG - Emergency Solutions Grant


Program provides grants by formula to states, metropolitan cities, urban counties, and U.S. territories for eligible activities, which generally include essential services related to emergency shelter and street outreach; rehabilitation and conversion of buildings to be used as emergency shelters; operation of emergency shelters; short-term and medium-term rental assistance for individuals and families who are homeless or at risk of homelessness; housing relocation and stabilization services for individuals and families who are homeless or at risk of homelessness; and Homeless Management Information System (HMIS) participation costs.




Evergreen


In 2017, the Evergreen Team – a volunteer committee of public and private leaders –
met monthly to discuss Charlotte’s affordable housing crisis and identify solutions for the next ten years. The Evergreen Team proposed eight ideas that offer solutions in the coming decade. Each idea is supported by an execution strategy that includes key actions essential to implementation and long-term housing affordability. Housing Charlotte addresses many of the ideas proposed by the Evergreen Team.
https://charlotte.uli.org/news/evergreen-team-task-force-releases-affordable-housing-report/





F

Fair Housing Act


The Civil Rights Act of 1968 defines housing discrimination as the “refusal to
sell or rent a dwelling to any person because of his race, color, religion, or national origin”. Title VIII of this Act is commonly referred to as the Fair Housing Act of 1968. It introduced meaningful federal enforcement mechanisms. The Fair Housing Amendments Act (FHAA) was signed into law on September 13, 1988. The Act amends Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968 by extending protection to persons with disability and families with children.





G


H

Housing Insecurity


<h6 class="font_6">Households that are both low- income and paying more than 50 percent of their monthly income on housing costs.</h6>




HNS - Department of Housing and Neighborhood Services


Department of Housing and Neighborhood Services invests federal and local resources
to develop and preserve affordable housing, with the Engineering & Property Management
Department developed a formal process for when to use city-owned property for affordable
housing development. Increased access to city-owned assets can help lower the overall cost of affordable housing development.
http://charlottenc.gov/HNS/Housing/Pages/default.aspx




HOME Investment Partnerships


Participating jurisdictions may use HOME funds for a variety of housing activities, depending on local housing needs. Eligible uses of funds include tenant-based rental assistance; housing rehabilitation; assistance to homebuyers; and new construction of housing. HOME funding may also be used for real property acquisition, site improvements, demolition, relocation, for both new construction and rehabilitation projects the costs to meet property standards, including accessibility requirements, and other necessary and reasonable activities related to the development of non-luxury housing. Funds may not be used
for public housing development, public housing operating costs, or for Section 8 tenant-based assistance, nor may they be used to provide non-federal matching contributions for other federal programs, for operating subsidies for rental housing, or for activities under the Low-Income Housing Preservation Act. All housing funded under the HOME program must serve low- and very low-income families.




HOPWA - Housing Opportunities for Persons with AIDS


To provide housing assistance and related supportive services to meet the housing needs of low-income persons and their families living with HIV/AIDS. These resources help clients maintain housing stability, avoid homelessness, and improve access to HIV/AIDS treatment and related care. To be eligible for HOPWA assistance, an individual must have an HIV or AIDS diagnosis and have a total household income of less than 80 percent of the area median income.




HouseCharlotte





HAB - Housing Advisory Board of Charlotte-Mecklenburg County


The Housing Advisory Board educates, advocates, engages, and partners with community stakeholders to prevent and end homelessness and ensure a sufficient supply of affordable housing throughout charlotte-Mecklenburg. HAB Sub Committees are:
- Affordable Housing Committee Educating and advocating for increased access and availability of affordable housing in Charlotte-Mecklenburg.
- Research & Evaluation Committee Promoting, supporting and disseminating research and data on homelessness, housing instability and affordable housing to the board and community stakeholders.
- Continuum of Care (CoC) Committee Overseeing the federally mandated activities for the
Charlotte-Mecklenburg Continuum of Care.
The following agencies can provide housing education, counseling, and foreclosure prevention services in Mecklenburg County:
● Community Link, 800-977-19694 ● The Housing Partnership, (704) 342-0933
● NC Foreclosure Prevention Fund, (888) 623-8631




HAP - Housing Assistance Payment


Used to provide Section 8 tenant-based assistance under the housing choice voucher program (voucher program) of the U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). See HBVP and PVB.




Housing Charlotte Framework


Using housing investments to increase access to opportunity is the foundation of the Housing Charlotte Framework. The Leading On Opportunity Report and
other affordable housing development partners developed the Housing Charlotte Framework to serve as a guide to address key City policy, investment, and production goals over the next several years.

https://charlotte.uli.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/15/2018/08/Housing-Charlotte-Framework.pdf




HVC - Housing Choice Voucher Program


Housing Choice Voucher Program provides "tenant-based" rental assistance. Previously
known as Section 8, in the Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Program enrollees receive a voucher that allows a portion of the rent to be paid directly to the property manager or property owner by Charlotte Housing Authority (CHA). See HVC in HUD below.




HTF - Housing Trust Fund


Currently provides $15 million in gap financing (via low-interest loans and grants) for acquisition, new construction, and rehabilitation of multifamily units every
two years. The existing local Housing Trust Fund, yields approximately 1,100 units per year (300 units from 9 percent and 800 units from 4 percent transactions). However, the Charlotte
community has strongly and consistently suggested that the Housing Trust Fund be ncreased. To that end, the City Manager’s recommended budget for fiscal year 2019 includes a $50 million Housing Trust Fund allocation.
http://charlottenc.gov/HNS/Housing/Landlords/Pages/HTF.aspx




HCVP - Housing Choice Voucher Program


Section 8 provides "tenant-based" rental assistance, so a tenant can move from one unit of at least minimum housingquality to another. The housing choice voucher program is the federal government's major program for assisting very low-income families, the elderly, and the disabled to afford decent, safe, and sanitary housing in the private market. Since housing assistance is provided on behalf of the family or individual, participants are able to find their own housing, including single-family homes, townhouses and apartments. Housing choice vouchers are administered locally by public housing agencies(PHAs), Locally the Charlotte Housing Authority (CHA). The PHAs receive federal funds from HUD to administer the
voucher program. A family that is issued a housing voucher is responsible for finding a suitable housing unit of the family's choice where the owner agrees to rent under the program. This unit may include the family's present residence. Rental units must meet minimum standards of health and safety, as determined by the PHA. A housing subsidy is paid to the landlord directly by the PHA on behalf of the participating family. The family then pays the difference between the actual rent charged by the landlord and the amount subsidized by the program. Under certain circumstances, if authorized by the PHA, a
family may use its voucher to purchase a modest home.
See: https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/public_indian_housing/programs/hcv/about/fact_sheet





I


J


K


L

Low Income


80% of area median income. See AMI




Leading on Opportunity Council/Leading on Opportunity Taskforce


In 2013, a Harvard University/UC Berkeley study reported that Charlotte ranked 50th in economic mobility among large U.S. cities. Local leaders responded by forming the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Opportunity Task Force, a group with members representing the area’s diverse neighborhoods and communities. Over an 18-month period in 2015 and 2016, the Opportunity Task Force set out to draft a comprehensive framework to guide policymakers, community leaders, and philanthropic partners toward addressing the negative effects of intergenerational poverty on Charlotte-Mecklenburg’s children and youth. The Leading on Opportunity Task Force Report presents analysis and recommendations according to the three determinants that the task force identified as having the greatest influence on the opportunity trajectory of an individual: 1) early care and education; 2) college and career readiness; 3) child and family stability.
https://leadingonopportunity.org/




LISC - Local Initiative Support Corporation


“We receive our funding from banks, corporations, foundations and government agencies. We, in turn, use that funding to provide financing (loans, grants and equity) and technical and management assistance to local partners and developers.”
http://www.lisc.org/ or http://www.lisc.org/our-model/how-lisc-works/




Locational Policy / Housing Locational Policy


Originally designed to help ensure that subsidized multifamily projects are not concentrated within Charlotte. The City of Charlotte is in the process of updating its Housing Locational Policy. Policy under review:
http://charlottenc.gov/HNS/Housing/Strategy/Documents/2011%20Housing%20Locational%20Policy.pdf




LIHTC - Low-Income Housing Tax Credit


The LIHTC was created as a part of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 and was designed to incent developers and investors to create and operate affordable housing. Under the program a developer receives federal income tax credits over a 10-year period in exchange for (i) acquiring, rehabbing or newly constructing rental housing for low-income households, and then (ii) operating the project under LIHTC guidelines for a certain compliance period. Unlike a tax deduction, which only reduces taxable income, the LIHTC credits offset dollar-for-dollar a party’s tax liability. The applicable percentage depends on the type of project and whether it is receiving other federal subsidies. 9% credit percentage is available for new construction or rehabilitation projects, so long as it isn’t also funded with tax-exempt, private activity bonds. 4% credit percentage is available for the acquisition of an existing project, and for those new construction and rehabilitation projects that are funded in part with tax-exempt bonds. If no bonds are involved, such new construction and rehabilitation projects would otherwise be eligible for the 9% credit percentage.
https://www.propertymetrics.com/blog/2017/06/13/a-complete-guide-to-the-low-income-housing-tax-credit-program/





M

Mixed Income Housing Development


A planned, single development that has a percentage of the dwelling units targeted to income levels at or below 80% Aeram Median Income (AMI) and developed according to an approved preliminary site plan.




Moderate Income


80 to 120% of Area Median Income (AMI)




MTW - Moving to Work


A demonstration program for public housing authorities(PHAs) that provides them the opportunity to design and test innovative, locally-designed strategies that: ●Reduce cost and achieve greater costs effectiveness in Federal expenditures ●Give incentives to families with children where the head of household is working, is seekingwork, or is preparing for work by participating in job training, educational programs, or programs thatassist people to obtain employment and become economically self-sufficient ●Increase housing choices for low-income families MTW gives PHAs exemptions from many existing public housing and voucher rules and more flexibilitywith how they use their Federal funds. CHA is 1 of 39 agencies participating in the federaldemonstration program.The Moving Forward Program is CHA’s local Moving to Work (MTW)program. http://cha-nc.org/about/moving-forward




Moving Forward Program


The Moving Forward Program is CHA's local Moving to Work (MTW) program. See MTW.





N

NACA - The Neighborhood Assistance Corporation of America


NACA is a non-profit, community advocacy and homeownership organization. NACA's primary goal is to build strong, healthy neighborhoods in urban and rural areas nationwide through affordable homeownership. NACA has conclusively shown that when working people get the benefit of a prime rate loan, they can resolve their financial problems, make their mortgage papyments and become prime borrowers. https://www.naca.com/




NOAH - naturally occurring affordable housing


A unit that is not subsidized or income-restricted. Charlotte offers affordable rental options in three main ways: 1) development-based (or project based) assistance 2) rental assistance through vouchers 3) naturally occurring affordable housing. Of these three types, NOAH units overwhelmingly make up the largest portion of the city’s affordable rental supply for low-income households. About eleven percent (approximately 14,000 units) of rental housing in Charlotte receives either development-based or tenant-based rental assistance.
For details of Charlotte NOAH, see Appendix 1, p.39, 40 and Appendix 2, p. 47 of:
https://charlotte.uli.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/15/2018/08/Housing-Charlotte-Framework.pdf




NOFA - Notice of Funding Availability


Notice of Funding Availability is a notice published each year in Grants.gov for HUD’s Discretionary Funding Programs. This notice describes the type of funding available on a competitive basis and provides a contact where an application may be submitted, typically up to 60 to 90 daysfrom the date of NOFA publication. Selection will then be made based upon specific factors andcriteria identified within the NOFA. https://nchousing.org/cdbg-neighborhood-revitalization-nofa-goes-out/




NRSA - Neighborhood Revitalization Strategy Area


As an incentive for CDBG Entitlement communities to develop and use NRSAs, the HUD provides greater flexibility in the use of CDBG resources, including Section 108 Loan Guarantee program funds. Communities with approved NRSAs are offered enhanced flexibility in undertaking economic development, housing, and public service activities with their CDBG funds. This flexibility is designed to promote innovative programs in economically disadvantaged areas of the community. A Notice of Funding Availability for NRSA’s in North Carolina was issued April 13, 2018. See NOFA.





O

Opportunity Zones


An Opportunity Zone is an economically-distressed community where new
investments, under certain conditions, may be eligible for preferential tax treatment. Localities qualify as Opportunity Zones if they have been nominated for that designation by the state and that nomination has been certified by the Secretary of the U.S. Treasury via his delegation authority to the Internal Revenue Service. Opportunity Zones are designed to spur economic development by providing tax benefits to investors. Opportunity Zones were added to the tax code by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act on December 22, 2017





P

PBV - Project-Based Vouchers


PBVs are a component of a public housing agency’s (PHA’s) Housing Choice Voucher program. (See HCVP above) PHAs are not allocated additional funding for PBV units; the PHA uses its tenant-based voucher funding to allocate project-based units to a project. Projects are typically selected for PBVs through a competitive process managed by the
PHA; although in certain cases projects may be selected non-competitively.





Q


R

RAD - Rental Assistance Demonstration


Charlotte Housing Authority (CHA) is in the process of converting all of its public housing units to Project Based Voucher units under the RAD program. See HBVP and PVB in HUD below. Also http://cha-nc.org/about/moving-forward





S

Section 108


Funding for mixed-income and mixed-use development. Section 108 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 provides for a loan guarantee component of the Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) Program. Section 108 provides communities with a source of financing for economic development, housing rehabilitation, public facilities, and other physical development projects, including improvements to increase their resilience against natural disasters. The funds can be used by a designated public entity to undertake eligible projects, or, alternatively, can be loaned to a third party developer to undertake the projects. This flexibility makes it one of the most potent and important public investment tools that HUD offers to local governments.




Section 8


Section 8 of the Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. § 1437f): As repeatedly amended,
Section 8 authorizes the payment of rental housing assistance to private landlords on behalf of low-income households. The largest part of the section is the Housing Choice Voucher program which pays a large portion of the rents and utilities of low-income households.
See HCV.





T

Tax Abatement/Tax Incentives


Reduction of or exemption from taxes granted by a government for a specified period, usually to encourage certain activities such as investment in capital equipment. A tax incentive is a form of tax abatement. Two primary types of tax incentives are tax credits and tax grants.




Tax Credits


An amount allowed to be deducted from reported gross income, used to encourage spending money on items or programs the government believe are worthy. LIHTC tax credits do not follow this usual pattern. See LIHTC




Tax Credit Funding


See LIHTC




Tax Grants


A grant is a sum of money given to a person or institution for a specific purpose. Grants do not require repayment to the issuing authority. Most tax grants are really a kind of exemption from tax given by taxing authorities. States, counties and municipalities can issue tax grants, usually on property or capital purchases. Many taxing authorities, for example, issue tax grants to nonprofits, allowing them to forgo paying peoperty tax.




Terwilliger


In response to a 2016 HUD report that Charlotte had a deficit of approximately
34,000 affordable housing units based on demand city staff contacted the Urban Land Institute’s Terwilliger Center for Housing (Center) to provide technical assistance in developing a strategy to address the deficit. The Increasing Workforce and Affordable Housing in Charlotte report contains the Center’s recommendations.
https://charlotte.uli.org/news/uli-terwilliger-center-recommendations-city-charlotte/




TCAP - Tax Credit Assistance Program


Part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, a grant program to provide funds for capital investments in stalled Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) projects. As planned, HUD would expend 100 percent of its TCAP grant within three years of the enactment of the Recovery Act (i.e., by February 16, 2012).




TIG (Tax Increment Grant)


A Tax Increment Grant (TIG) is a tool used by City/County to partner with private developers to enable projects that promote economic growth and land use planning goals. The simple mechanics result in an amount of investment by City/County into the project. The private developers gain a rebate in their annual property taxes until the amount of agreed upon investment is reached. This diverts the new developments annual public tax revenue from the general fund until the TIG amount is reached.

Simple Example:

Developer A want to build a new office building that will bring new jobs to the city. The developer partners with the Economic Development teams of both the City/County to agree upon an amount that will make the project an attractive investment for investors. The developer communicates that the project will not be financially viable (pencil out) absent the public funding.

-Proposed Project - $500 million in investment creating XX jobs.

-Developer Requested Public Funding - $25 million

-Property Taxes generated by $500 million investment = $5 million / year

Developer would receive a property tax refund for 5 years ($25 / $5) totaling $25 million

This tool has been used historically by City/County to attract new businesses and to assist in the development of large projects that will lead to economic development.

Per the City’s Economic Development Page:

TIGs are provided on a reimbursement basis only and the project must demonstrate its benefit to the general public. Examples of reimbursable improvements through a TIG include but are not limited to, new public infrastructure such as roads, streetscapes, and parking decks. A TIG may also be employed to assist in gap funding for developments shown to achieve the City’s goals and objectives (e.g. affordable and workforce housing, job creation, etc.) but would not be financially feasible without assistance from the City.





U

UDO - Unified Development Ordinance


UDO is a regulatory tool meant to guide future development so that it results in the types of community and places defined by Charlotte’s Place Type policies. https://charlotteudo.org/about-2/place-types/. The UDO will also be instrumental in implementing other City policies such as the Transportation Action Plan, the Urban Street Design Guidelines, and the Urban Forestry Master Plan. It will combine multiple development ordinances, including the Zoning Ordinance, into one set of regulations.The UDO is currently being updated by The Charlotte-Mecklenburg Planning Department.
https://charlotteudo.org/about-2/





V

Voluntary Mixed Income Housing Development Program


Approved by City Council in 2013 as an incentive to private sector housing developers to build affordable housing units.This program seeks to encourage housing diversity in mixed-income housing developments in targeted locations through a voluntary, incentive-based density bonus within the R-3, R-4, R-5, and R-6 single family zoning districts and the R-8MF and R-12MF multi-family zoning districts.
https://www.cmhp.org/voluntary-mixed-income-housing-development-program/




Very Low Income


50% of area median income (AMI)





W


X


Y


Z

Zoning Density Bonus


A density bonus is an incentive-based tool that permits a developer to increase
the maximum allowable development on a site in exchange for either funds or in-kind support for specified public policy goals. See Density Bonus.





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Equitable Communities CLT is working to change the conversation around affordable and equitable housing in  the Charlotte area.

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